Objectives:Explain the definition of terrorism.Review the types of commonly used terror agents.Explain why health professionals need to be current in the evaluation and treatment of biologic, chemical, and radiation related terrorism, and vigilant in monitoring for a terrorism event.Outline the types biologic, chemical, and radiation terrorism events and discuss the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and treating catastrophic events associated with terrorism.Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.
Terrorism is generally considered to be the use of force or violence outside the law to create fear among citizens with the intent to coerce some sort of action. Health professionals should be aware bioterrorism is a perfect vehicle for terrorists to strike fear into the hearts and minds of citizens in the hopes they will bend the will of the people to support their agendas. All health professionals need to be prepared for this potentially catastrophic event.
Terrorism is the intentional use of indiscriminate violence to create fear and terror. Unfortunately, it is now commonly used as a means to achieve an ideological, financial, religious, or political aim. Terror tactics may include biologic, chemical, nuclear, or explosive events. Health professionals should be aware bioterrorism is a perfect vehicle for terrorists to strike fear into the hearts and minds of citizens. To provide the best outcomes, all health professionals need to be prepared for this potentially catastrophic event and be aware of the signs, symptoms, and treatment options available. [Level 5]
Policyholders are free to waive such coverage in total or in part. If coverage is not waived, the insurer must clearly and conspicuously state the premium charges resulting from coverage for certified terrorist acts. If terrorism coverage is waived, the insurer may then add terrorism exclusions to the policy.
The Mumbai attack is uniquely different from past terror strikes carried out by Islamic terrorists. Instead of one or more bombings at distinct sites, the Mumbai attackers struck throughout the city using military tactics. Instead of one or more bombings carried out over a short period of time, Mumbai is entering its third day of crisis.
The only attack similar to the Mumbai strike is the assault on the Indian Parliament by the Jaish-e-Mohammed, aided by the Lashkar-e-Taiba, in December 2001. A team of Jaish-e-Mohammed fighters attempted to storm the parliament building while in a session was held. A combination of mishaps by the terrorists and the quick reaction of security guards blunted the attack.
A wide degree of variation is apparent between each of these. The behaviors targeted can range from "terrorism" at one end to "vulnerability to/at risk from radicalization and violent extremism" at the other. Equally, the program can involve individuals whose conditions range from being held in detention by the state (either as a convicted criminal, someone awaiting trial, or someone who voluntarily surrendered to the authorities), across the spectrum to individuals who live freely in the community and have committed no illegal acts but who may be vulnerable to, or at risk from, radicalization. A further factor in emphasizing that one size does not fit all is that the main aim of each of the three types of program must necessarily be very different. Consequently, the objectives to be achieved in pursuit of these aims will also be different. The net result is that no program with a single aim can encompass all of these requirements.
The second set of contextual elements to be considered when examining deradicalization programs are the local conditions under which the program operates. Tables 1 and 2 show the types of behaviors that can indicate the presence of prior radicalization of individuals, whether they are involved in terrorism or violent extremism, or whether they are in transition from radicalization to terrorism/violent extremism. Each of these categories are different, and therefore a different type of program is required for trying to deal with each of them. Finally, the degree of freedom the individual has (and hence the degree of control that can be exerted over him or her) is also an important element and can be broken down into three main levels depending on whether the subjects of the program are incarcerated in some way; whether they are living freely but are likely to be detained if their behavior continues on current trajectories; or whether they are living freely and openly in society. 2b1af7f3a8